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Getting Your Mares Ready To Breed Early

By Dr. Robert Hunter, DVM

Thinking of breeding your mare next year?  Now is the time to decide when you want that foal to arrive.

All foals in the northern hemisphere share the same birthday of January 1st.  Depending on the potential use for the horse, it may be important to have an early foaling date.  If you are planning to show or race the horse, the early foals will have more physical and mental maturity and therefore advantages over those born later in the year.

Most mares do not cycle during the shorter days of fall, winter and early spring. As day length increases in late spring, mares enter a transition period. This is the time when the ovaries return to cyclic activity by producing eggs or follicles.

There are a few steps you should take in December if you plan to breed your mare as early as February.

Many breeders use artificial lighting for 8-10 weeks to induce early ovarian activity. Artificial lighting is used to increase the day length to 16 hours.  In the Sacramento region, I recommend lights be turned on from 4:00pm-11:00pm starting in December. Mares that are normally housed outside should be brought into individual stalls before dark to ensure that they are within 8 feet of the artificial light source. If the mare is normally kept in a stall, it should have adequate window space to ensure natural light during the day.

How bright should the light be?  The wavelength and intensity of light is as critical as the length of exposure. It is recommended that mares be exposed to a minimum of 10 foot-candles of light during the 16-hour period. The rule of thumb is to make sure it is bright enough to read the newspaper anywhere in the stall.  Of course, that can vary based on your vision, so if you want to be more scientific you can test the light intensity with a light meter.

There is a difference in light intensity between a horse stall with dark walls and one with lighter colored walls. A 200 watt incandescent or two 40 watt fluorescent bulbs will generally give adequate illumination in a box stall, if placed within 7-8 feet of the mare.

A 35-mm single lens reflex camera with a built-in light meter can be used to measure light intensity. Set the ASA to 400 and the shutter speed to 1/4 second. Cut the bottom off a styrofoam cup and fit the bottom of the cup over the lens to gather light.  Hold the camera at the mare’s eye level. The aperture reading should be equal to or slightly greater than F4.

Many farms will set the stall lights on timers to make certain there is no interruption in the light pattern. Note that leaving barn or paddock lights on for 24 hours a day is not advantageous and 8 hours of darkness is necessary.

Stallions are also affected by day length and have reduced fertility during the winter. Therefore there may be an impact on stallions if they are in the same barn or location as the mare that is on a lighting program.

Make sure to check with your veterinarian to ensure that your lighting program is in the best interest of your breeding animal.

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Abandoned Horses – If you find one, what should you do?

By Dr. Robert Hunter, DVM

My recent experience being called to an accident scene with an abandoned horse made me very aware of the difficult decisions being made by horse owners and prospective horse owners during this challenging economy.

We are hearing stories across the nation of horses being abandoned in barns, open space where there may be seasonal grass but no water, and turned loose in rural areas.  I have heard of one trail rider who returned to her trailer to find several horses tied there with a note asking to take the horses.  Animal sanctuaries are doing their best to meet the demand, but most are at capacity and in need of financial and volunteer support.

So what should you do if you find an abandoned horse?  If it is injured, who should you call?  And is it wise to adopt a horse when you know very little about its origin?

When “Lucky Pal” (the young gelding in Wilton who was hit by a car and assumed to have fatal injuries) was discovered, it was not known if he had escaped from his pasture or if he had been released by owners who would no longer keep him.  He had no halter or rope and there were no frantic owners looking for a lost horse in sight.  In fact, this horse received widespread public attention, thanks to a News10 reporter who showed up on the scene and later aired the progress of his care while at Hunter Stallion Station – yet no owner came forward to claim him.

If you find a lost animal, it is your obligation to check with the local animal shelter to see if the owner has filed a lost animal report.  Sacramento County Animal Care did show up at the scene of Lucky Pal’s accident.  Unfortunately, they phoned a veterinarian who was located an hour away, with no guarantee they would show up.  In fact, this horse lay by the side of the road for over 2 hours until the reporter decided to act and called me.  I was local, and able to respond in 10 minutes.

One of the many problems with this scenario was that the local Animal Care did not have very many vets who were registered as first responders.  I have since signed up and am now available for emergency veterinary services with Sacramento County.  Please encourage your vet to do the same in your area – it could be your injured animal they are called to assist.

Since most county shelters have limited ability to take in horses, they are willing to release the animal to the care of a veterinarian or sanctuary.  Records of Lucky Pal’s status were available at the shelter and after the 7 day waiting period he became legally available for adoption.  Utilizing this process is important so that an irresponsible previous owner cannot come forward later, after the animal’s veterinary care has been taken care of, to claim their animal.

In the case of Lucky Pal, many horse lovers and veterinarians stepped up to support his needs, donating services and funds to bring him back to health.  He now has a great home with people who will take good care of him.  Not all abandoned horses are that fortunate.

Whether you are purchasing a horse, or adopting from a shelter or rescue organization, there are many things to consider to ensure a good match:

  1. How do you intend to use the horse, and is it physically and mentally able to perform for you?  Horses young and old will have varying levels of training – if any; and it is always possible they have had bad experiences with trailering or abusive training methods. Some horses are physically able to be ridden but may have limitations due to conformation flaws or physical conditions.  Others are destined to be pasture ornaments. Recognizing a horse’s limitations is important and helping a horse overcome bad experiences and past injuries is a long process requiring patience and some skill.
  2. Is the horse a good match for your skill level? People have different levels of knowledge about horses.  Some have ridden trained horses, but have no experience with training a young or possibly traumatized horse.  Your relationship with a new horse should be a pleasure, not a battle, so don’t take on more than you can comfortably handle.
  3. Do you have a facility that can provide adequate shelter for a horse?  If you are a first time horse owner and do not have a barn, can you provide shelter for the horse in bad weather?  Will their feed be kept dry to avoid mold?  Are the fences in good shape and safe for horses?
  4. Has your veterinarian checked the horse?   It is important that your vet checks the horse before you take ownership.  Not only will this provide your vet with the information needed to advise you on improving or maintaining the horse’s health, but your vet may discover behavior and physical characteristics that would not meet your goals in owning the horse.

In the horse world it is commonly known that the initial price of the horse is the least amount of money you will spend.  You will have costs for feed, tack, worming, shoeing, vaccinations, shelter, training and occasional emergencies.   While adopting a formerly abused or neglected horse is a noble idea, it is only best for the horse if you go into the relationship fully prepared.  Your veterinarian can be a valuable resource to you, not only in the initial evaluation, but on an ongoing basis as you do your best to provide a good life for your horse.


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Protecting Your Horse from West Nile Virus

By Dr. Robert Hunter, DVM

As late summer approaches it is time to be vigilant about preventing the spread of West Nile virus and other mosquito borne diseases.  To date, no horses have been reported with West Nile, however, humans and other species are starting to be impacted.  If your horses have not been vaccinated, or had a booster shot within the past 6 months, they are vulnerable to this disease.

Overall, the number of West Nile Virus (WNV) cases are lower than the same time last year, thanks to effective vector control and community members doing their part to reduce standing water.  Here are the latest statistics from the California Department of Public Health West Nile Virus Website:

Human:  In California, there were 3 new cases reported the first week of August from Los Angeles and Madera Counties.  In total, 10 human cases from 6 counties have tested positive for WNV in 2011.

Horses:  No cases have been reported in California.

Birds: There were 38 new WNV positive dead birds reported the first week in August including 1 in Placer County, 5 in Sacramento County, and 2 in San Joaquin County.  Overall, 148 dead birds from 13 counties have tested positive for WNV in 2011.

Mosquito Samples:  There were 121 new WNV positive mosquito samples reported in California the first week in August, including 2 in Placer County and 21 in Sacramento County.  Overall, 392 mosquito samples from 15 counties have tested positive for WNV in 2011.

Since 2004 when 540 horses in California were infected with WNV, the numbers have been reduced to 19 cases last year.  While the news is encouraging that fewer cases are being found, it is still important for horse owners to protect their animals from the disease through vaccinations, and to be able to recognize possible symptoms.

In horses that do become clinically ill, the West Nile Virus infects the central nervous system and may cause symptoms of encephalitis.  Clinical signs of encephalitis in horses may include a general loss of appetite and depression, in addition to any combination of the following signs:

  • Stumbling
  • Fever
  • Circling
  • Hind leg weakness or paralysis
  • Inability to stand
  • Muscle tremors
  • Impaired vision
  • Convulsions/Seizures
  • Inability to swallow
  • Hyper excitability

It is important to note that not all horses with clinical signs of encephalitis have West Nile encephalitis. Certain other diseases can cause a horse to have symptoms similar to those resulting from infection with West Nile Virus. If you are concerned that your horse may be exhibiting signs of encephalitis, please contact your veterinarian. Laboratory tests are necessary to confirm a diagnosis.

While most horses who are otherwise healthy recover from the virus, there is no specific treatment for West Nile encephalitis in horses. Veterinary treatment is recommended and should be supportive and consistent with standard veterinary practices for animals infected with a viral agent.

Besides reducing standing water on your property, steps can be taken to reduce the likelihood of exposure of horses to adult mosquitoes:

  • Avoid turning on lights inside the stable during the evening and overnight hours. Mosquitoes are attracted to yellow incandescent bulbs.
  • If light is needed near the stable, place incandescent bulbs outside the stable to attract mosquitoes away from the horses. Black lights (bug zappers) don’t attract mosquitoes well.
  • Reduce the number of birds in and around the stable area. Eliminate roosting areas in the rafters of the stable. Certain species of wild birds are thought to be the main reservoir for the virus. (Although pigeons have been shown to become infected with West Nile Virus, they do not appear to act as reservoirs and therefore don’t transmit the virus to mosquitoes).
  • Topical preparations containing mosquito repellents are available for horses.
  • Fogging of stable premises can be done in the evening to reduce mosquitoes; read directions carefully before using.

As your Sacramento vet, I will continue to keep you informed of any news relating to West Nile Virus or outbreaks of other diseases that could impact your horse.  Do not hesitate to contact Hunter Stallion Station at info@hunterstallion.com, or call us at 916.687.6870 if you have questions, or we can otherwise be of service.

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10 Steps to Reduce the Spread of Disease for the Traveling Horse

By Dr. Robert Hunter, DVM

Summertime is the peak season for activities with your horse.  Whether you are trail riding, showing or transporting your horse for breeding, you need to take precautions to make sure you don’t bring home diseases that will impact your horse or others in your barn.

Disease agents such as bacteria, viruses and parasites can remain in a barn or staging grounds for an extended period of time.  They can reside in fecal and organic matter, in the soil and in rodents or birds that live in the area.  Horses, donkeys and mules can carry contagions without showing any symptoms. You are also capable of unknowingly transferring diseases on your boots, hands and clothing.

How can you travel with your horse and focus on having fun rather than stressing about causing a bacterial or viral outbreak?  These 10 steps should reduce the risk associated with your travels:

  1. Have your horse’s vaccines current two weeks prior to departure
  2. Ask your veterinarian if there are any known outbreaks or concerns in the areas you will be traveling to and through
  3. Be aware of the condition and behavior of horses in your new destination, such as lethargic behavior, nasal discharge and coughing
  4. Bring your own feed and don’t change the regimen while traveling
  5. Bring a container such as a bucket or portable feeder for dispensing the feed
  6. If possible, bring your own water; and use a portable water container for trail rides.
  7. Don’t share tack (including halters, bits, girths, blankets and saddle pads) and minimize physical contact with other horses
  8. Clean out your horse’s hoofs prior to loading them in the trailer
  9. Change your clothes before reentering your barn area
  10. Wash your hands and arms thoroughly before departure with a disinfectant soap or hand sanitizer.

While you have no control over the hygiene and health of your fellow travelers, you can take control of your horse’s potential exposure to diseases by making an effort to follow these steps.  If you are concerned about your horse’s health after your return, call your veterinarian and they will inform you of signs to look for and further precautions to take.

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Natural Horse Products – Choosing Ingredients for your Horse’s Wellness

By Dr. Robert Hunter, DVM

Many horse owners are looking to natural products for their own health maintenance, as well as for their animals.  When seeking out natural alternatives, where can you go to find the right ingredients?  If you search for “natural horse remedies” on the internet, you will find over 685,000 sites that offer products and remedies.  Wading through the information and claims can be a daunting task.

Herbs and plants have been used for healing since the beginning of time.  Animals and humans alike learned through trial and error if consuming that berry, bark or leaf would have a healing affect.  The difference between animals and humans is that we learn from our mistakes, and through scientific advancements have been able to identify and refine natural ingredients, while removing their harmful properties.  We have also learned which ingredients worked together and which ones when combined could have an adverse or even lethal effect.

Horse owners who are considering plant-based remedies that are purchased on the internet or from other unlicensed sources must follow some important guidelines to be certain their choices will have the desired effect.

Knowing that the ingredients are actually what they claim to be is just the beginning of the research that must take place.  These products are not regulated which means that labels can be deceiving and do not necessarily include all ingredients.

The horse owner must understand the efficacy of the product, and whether it is potent enough to have the desired impact.  At the same time, they must understand which herbs or plants can be dispensed together, and whether one will negate the impact of the other.

And finally, the horse owner needs to be very careful about dosage.  More is not always better, and can often make matters worse.

Consulting with your veterinarian before using unregulated remedies is wise and could be an eye-opening experience.  I am aware of many supplements on the market that are plant based and provide excellent maintenance source for my client’s horses.  I am also aware of supplements that make claims but don’t provide the ingredients to achieve the promised results.

Your vet will also provide crucial information about combining pharmaceutical medicines with other remedies.  Licensed veterinarians are trained to understand the chemical impact of substances ingested by horses, whether from a natural source or chemically produced.  We can help you to understand when you must progress from a maintenance program to medications that will directly impact the ailment.

You can improve your horse’s chance of wellness with natural products and not get led astray by people in the horse profession with limited education.  There are many natural supplements and feed producing practices that can provide fewer pesticides, herbicides and chemicals in your horse’s diet. Using researched herbal supplements to boost immunity and improve overall wellness has its merits.

There is a difference between maintaining good health and knowing how to diagnose a sickness or injury.  Veterinarians have been trained and stay on the top of the latest research.  The Veterinarian Medical Board for the State of California requires every licensed vet receive at least 36 hours of continuing education from an approved source every time their license is renewed.

Having a relationship with a veterinarian gives the horse owner the right to ask for recommendations on feed and supplements to support the overall wellness of the animal.  This is particularly important for breeding animals and performance horses that may be pushing their bodies to the limits of their physical and mental ability.  In addition, they are exposed to potential illness simply because they are traveling and stabling in the vicinity of other horses with unknown health histories.

Your horse depends on you to provide sustenance that will maintain his health and enable him to perform the tasks you require.  Do your research and don’t hesitate to ask your veterinarian to share his or her knowledge.

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How Can I Save Money in Caring for My Horse?

By Dr. Robert Hunter, DVM

As the economy continues to impact employment and property values, horse prices have dropped, and some are even “free to a good home”.  Too many people find out the hard way that there is no such thing as a “free horse”.

Whether you have one horse or a full barn, caring from them properly is expensive.  Horses need their teeth maintained, and their overall health checked periodically.  Their feet should be trimmed every two months. They must have access to fresh cool water, and should be fed a meal consisting of quality hay or stable mix at least twice per day.  Their vaccine protocol is based on conditions within the local region, as is their worming regimen.  Their diet should be supplemented with vitamins and minerals that cannot be found in local vegetation.  And that’s just for your backyard buddies!  If you have a performance or breeding horse, the costs are even higher.

In light of the need to save where possible, it is very common for people to look to the internet for specials on supplements and maintenance products such vaccinations.  It is also used to research symptoms and even to determine if the veterinarian should be called.  But will that really save you money in the long run?  Do you have all the information you need to make a smart purchase on-line or to diagnose your horse’s health issues?

The resources available on the internet range in quality from well researched and reliable to thinly veiled sales gimmicks.  If you are relying on internet sources to diagnose a health issue for your animal, or to determine an appropriate supplement or vaccine protocol, you are most likely stepping outside your area of expertise.

Your vet has access to quality products that have been maintained properly to assure effectiveness.  They also know what your horse needs to supplement their diet, and won’t have you waste your money on unnecessary vitamins or untested remedies.

Before you rely on information you read on the internet, be certain you can trust the source.  Ask your vet about the remedies you have discovered and make certain the information is current and researched.   Your vet is aware of trends in disease control, and has access to a network of professionals who can be trusted.

Deviating from your normal routine to save money will only cost you later in higher vet bills. The preventative care and advice from your vet is well worth the investment.   Most Veterinarians will give you free advice over the phone if you have an established relationship. This relationship is a very important part of having a horse and caring for it properly and efficiently. It will help to save money and avoid problems – and could possibly save your horses life in some cases.

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New Horse Owner or New to the Area?

By Dr. Robert Hunter, DVM
Horse owners should know that establishing a relationship with a reliable, local vet is a top priority. Waiting until you have an emergency is not the best way to find the right veterinarian.

How can you find a Sacramento vet who will be the right fit for you and your horse?

First, start with your fellow horse owners and local trainers or breeders that you respect. They will give you their opinion on a vet who has a reputation for professionalism, reliability and any expertise that you may require. If you are planning to breed your mare or offer the services of your stallion, you will want a vet who can provide boarding during foaling, and services such as shipping or receiving frozen semen. You need to know that they have the experience and the facilities to take care of your horse’s health maintenance and any procedures that may be necessary.

Once you have found a vet that meets your needs, you should schedule an exam to establish a baseline for your horse’s health. Results from your pre-purchase exam should be provided to your new vet, as well as your feeding, supplement, vaccine and worming regimen. Your vet can inform you of supplements and vaccines that should be provided based on local conditions and can make certain your horse’s dental, vision and general health conditions are appropriate for its intended use.

Your vet should also be involved in the care of your horse’s feet. Working together with your farrier, your vet can recommend a comprehensive strategy to address lameness issues, keeping in mind the animal’s conformation, current use and other health conditions.
As a Sacramento vet, I make certain to keep my clients informed of local outbreaks such as the recent equine herpes virus-1 (EHV-1). It has only been through the communication network of veterinarians to their clients that this potentially disastrous virus has been curtailed.

My clients also benefit from resources available on our website, www.hunterstallion.com, and by participating in the workshops that we sponsor. We host specialists who are willing to share their knowledge on topics such as nutritional supplements, joint health and the latest imaging technology.

Establishing a relationship with a local vet will help you to document your horse’s health history, provide cost-saving preventative care, while giving you access to local knowledge to prevent the spread of disease. Knowing a trained professional who has a history of your horse’s health record before you call with an emergency will lead to the best results.

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Vaccines to Prevent Equine Respiratory Diseases

By Dr. Robert Hunter, DVM

Horses can carry and spread highly contagious viral diseases that impact the upper respiratory tract. The good news is that a proactive vaccination schedule can provide protection.  Your Sacramento vet should be consulted to recommend a regimen that is best suited to each horse’s current environment and potential exposure.

The two most common respiratory diseases that can be prevented are Rhinopneumonitis and Equine Influenza. Whether you choose to provide separate vaccines, or a combined Rhino/Flu shot depends on the exposure your horse has, including being boarded in a large stable, or involvement in a busy show or racing schedule.

Equine Influenza is an airborne virus and has a very high rate of transmission among horses. It has a short incubation time of 1-5 days. Symptoms include a fever, dry hacking cough, runny nose and possible depression and reluctance to eat or drink for several days.  Recovery takes two to three weeks.

Foals are less impacted by influenza because the vaccinated mare’s colostrums provide the newborn with protective maternal antibodies.  As the foal ages, their maternal antibodies decay and they become susceptible to influenza.  Under the supervision of your veterinarian, foals can start receiving influenza vaccinations at six months.

The vaccine for equine influenza is a combination of the two most common strains (A1, A2) as a killed virus. The initial vaccine is followed by a second dose in three to four weeks.  Horses with a busy travel schedule, and thus more exposure to other horses, should be vaccinated every three to four months, under the direction of their veterinarian.    Horses with a low risk of exposure generally require vaccination every six to twelve months.

Rhinopneumonitis is a viral disease that impacts the respiratory system and can also lead to abortion.  In addition, the disease can impact the nervous system and cause paralysis.  There are two rhino strains involved in this disease: equine herpesvirus-1 (EHV-1) and equine herpesvirus-4 (EHV-4).

The EHV-1 vaccine protects horses against abortion and the paralysis form, and some respiratory.  The EHV-4 vaccine protects horses against primarily the respiratory form, which accounts for over half of the cases of respiratory disease in horses.

Check with your Sacramento vet to see which vaccine brands he recommends.  There are many available and some may be more effective and safe than others.  Knowing how and when to vaccinate your horse takes some knowledge and planning.  For a complete guide to recommended vaccination schedules for foals, pregnant mares and adult horses, visit the Hunter Stallion Station website.

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Disease Prevention for Your Brood Mare

By Dr. Robert Hunter, DVM
As your broodmare gets closer to her calculated foaling date, your veterinarian should be consulted regarding her care. If you have arranged for her to board at your vet’s facility, she will be watched closely as the big day approaches, and your vet will have access to administer crucial disease-preventing services. Vaccines and deworming will be included in a health maintenance program; however, your vet needs to advise you so as not to impact the foal.

Your veterinarian will administer “core vaccines,” which are those considered important for every horse to have annually, regardless of geographical location or athletic use. The American Veterinary Medical Association (AVMA) describes core vaccines as those “that protect from diseases that are endemic (prevalent with a high rate of occurrence) to a region, those with potential public health significance, required by law, virulent or highly infectious, and/or those posing a risk of severe disease.”

Vaccinating pregnant mares can reduce the risk of abortion. Staying on a prescribed vaccination schedule gives the mare immunity to Rhino (EHV-1) so she doesn’t get infected and abort. The immunity is passed to her foal through maternal antibodies in the colostrum.

As a Sacramento vet, I recommend your mare be vaccinated 10 months into her pregnancy with Eastern & Western Encephalomyelitis, Tetanus, Strangles, West Nile, Influenza, Rhino (EHV) and Rabies. At this time, deworming would also be appropriate. A fecal egg count should be done at least once a year prior to deworming.

7-10 days post foaling, she should have a uterine culture, regardless of whether you are breeding back. For more information on vaccination and deworming protocols for horses, visit the Hunter Stallion Station website at www.hunterstallion.com.

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Vaccination Regimens Tailored to Keep Your Horse Healthy

By Dr. Robert Hunter, DVM

Two-way..Four-way..how many ways should you go to keep your horse healthy and safe from infectious diseases?  Your Sacramento vet should be consulted when deciding which vaccines to administer and when the best time is to take action.  Many factors are considered when your vet makes a recommendation, and it may differ for each horse in your barn.

Your vet will consider your horse’s age, breeding status, travel plans, stable mates, overall health, and known outbreaks in your region before suggesting a vaccination regimen.  Taking into consideration the entire environment in which your horse lives is equally important to understanding the seasons for mosquito-borne diseases.

April is the month to review your horse’s vaccination schedule and to be sure that they are protected from various forms of Encephalitis.  Both Sleeping Sickness and West Nile are spread by infected mosquitoes, and their peak season in the Sacramento region is mid-summer through early fall.  The vaccinations against these deadly diseases are most effective when given several months in advance (April through June).

3-Way Plus West Nile Vaccination Addresses Seasonal Outbreaks

Depending on the horse’s current health and use, I recommend as a starting point that a 3-way shot be given in spring.  This combined shot addresses Eastern and Western Encephalomyelitis, Tetanus and West Nile.  If your horse was vaccinated in January, a booster by the month of June would be appropriate.

Eastern Equine Encephalitis (EEE) is found primarily in the Eastern part of the United States and rarely is found in the Midwest and West. Generally speaking, EEE is found along the Eastern seaboard from New England to Florida. It generally kills affected horses–the case-fatality rate ranges between 75-100%.  Since migrating birds are the carrier for this and other forms of Encephalitis, western-based horses are advised to protect against the disease.

Western Equine Encephalitis (WEE) is found in the Western part of the United States and is the form of encephalitis that is least fatal in horses. Research has shown that the case-fatality rate generally ranges between 20-50%. While many horses with WEE exhibit signs of “sleeping sickness,” some become agitated and excitable. Animals that survive an attack generally show gradual improvement within a few months.

Tetanus – Since the organism that causes Tetanus can be found in horse manure, the Tetanus vaccination is extremely important. When a horse’s wound comes in contact with the manure the outcome can be fatal without treatment.

West Nile (WNV) – The first signs of the disease will display between five and 15 days after the infected mosquito bites the horse. As is the case with WEE and EEE, there is no cure for infected horses because no specific antiviral agents have yet been identified that act upon WNV. The case-fatality rate is around 30% in horses.

For a complete list of vaccination schedules, visit the Hunter Stallion Station website at: https://www.hunterstallion.com.

Knowing which vaccines to give, and when, can make the difference between health, and even life or death for your horse.  Be sure to check with your Sacramento vet to tailor your vaccination schedule to each horse in your barn.  I will provide more detailed information on other recommended vaccinations in subsequent posts.

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